Patris Augustini Episcopi Hipponensis

Long before 1471, Ferrara was an established center for the production of manuscripts. Local workshops under Leonello had stressed the classics and humanistic subjects, and under Borso d’Este had shifted their focus to magnificent illuminated books, to translations, and to vernacular literature. Under Ercole, they broadened still further. Ercole ordered at least four splendidly illuminated Breviaries for his personal use and among them is this wonderful “Orationes” by Saint Agustine. (...)


The LIFE OF virgIn marY

The grandiose pages of this codex indicates without doubt that it was produced for the great monarch Francis I, who was considered  the leader of the French Renaissance. The “Fleur de Lys“ appears in various miniatures of this beautiful codex  as well as the coat of arms and emblem of the monarch that is represented by a salamander in a fire-pan. Scenes of Virgin Mary´s life illustrate the pages of this manuscript from her birth to her Crowning. (...)



ilustrated Bible OF Den Haad

The beautiful miniatures are clearly within the so-called French style of 1200. The main characteristic was the depth of golden figures with byzantine influence with vivid colours and flat images, maintaining though some conventional roman format. There is a total 172-coloured images representing the cycle of Salvation, beginning with Adam and Eve in earthly paradise and finishing with judgement day. During the XIII century the manuscript had various owners and more text was added in Latin and French making some specialists (...)


The Illuminated Apocalipsis OF Valenciennes

From the beginning of the Christian Era and during the Middle Ages the text of the Apocalipsis inspired and strengthend the artists imagination mainly due to the richness of prophetic visions and the power of their symbols. In the Apocalipsis of Valenciennes one can see the first remainsof complete cycles of biblical illustrations.The pages of this Apocalipsis are enriched with 39 coloured miniatures situated next to the text. (...)


The Illuminated Apocalipsis OF Lyon

The Apocalipsis of Lyon can be dated between 1445 and 1450 and was written in the artistic and literary area of northern France in the region of Picardie and Artois and it was most probably produced in Arras or Cambrai. This manuscript was kept during the XVI and XVII century in the area of Arras, in fact two well recognised experts from northern France, Alexander le Blancq and later Maximilien Charles of Coupigny confirm this fact. The text is made up of 230 verses in Latin, the first eight verses as a means of introduction explaining to the reader the relationship between text and images (...)


Book of Hunting OF Gaston III

Between 1270 and 1287, Guido della Colonne, Italian lawyer, historian and poet, wrote a Latin version in prose of 35 chapt Hunting was the sport for aristocrats reaching a high degree of sophistication; it was practise in times of peace and always associated to religious themes. Alfonso X the Wise (1256-1348) wrote, “How the king has to be well versed at hunting”. Gaston III, nick named Febus because of his golden hair, sovereign of the County of Foix and of Beam, in the French Pyrenees, bequeath to posterity one of the best treatise on the subject of hunting. (...)


History of the Destruction OF Troy

Between 1270 and 1287, Guido della Colonne, Italian lawyer, historian and poet, wrote a Latin version in prose of 35 chapters reducing the famous epic of Benoit of Sainte-Maure about the Troy War, from the expedition of the Argonauts until the death of Ulises. The language that Guido uses is the medieval scholastic Latin, conscious of the desire to express elegance. Of the 100 manuscripts still preserved of Guido´s text, its lavish miniatures characterize the one in the Russian National Library. Although the artist of the miniatures is unknown, one can appreciate a great influence of the Italian school of the XIV century. (...)


The Player Book OF Claude de France

The Prayer Book of Claude de France is a tiny, jewel-like manuscript that was made for Claude (1499–1524) around 1517, the year she was crowned queen of France. Her coat of arms appears on three different folios. The book is richly illustrated: the borders of each leaf are painted, front and back, with 132 scenes from the lives of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and numerous saints. The manuscript and a companion Book of Hours also made for the queen (in a Paris private collection) were illuminated by an artist who was given the nickname Master of Claude de France after these two volumes. (...)


Silius Italicus

The attraction aroused among Renaissance men Greek and Roman history made him rediscover and return to read Silius Punic De bello Italico. The Second Punic War is the subject of this epic, which tells the greatness of the Romans, exalting the heroic virtues of the Roman leaders and the power of Rome, subject and initially overwhelmed by enemies, finally triumphed in the struggle, which was one of the most epic and deadly in its history. (...)

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